Standard Health Record FHIR Implementation Guide

SHR WoundAbsent Profile - Detailed Descriptions

Definitions for shr-skin-WoundAbsent.

Observation
Definition

Documents the absence of a wounds of a particular type at a given body site. if the Value is SCT#416462003 (Wound) then there is no wound of any type at the site.

Control0..*
Alternate NamesVital Signs, Measurement, Results, Tests
Comments

Used for simple observations such as device measurements, laboratory atomic results, vital signs, height, weight, smoking status, comments, etc. Other resources are used to provide context for observations such as lab reports, etc.

InvariantsDefined on this element
dom-1: If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain any narrative (: contained.text.empty())
dom-2: If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources (: contained.contained.empty())
dom-3: If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource (: contained.where(('#'+id in %resource.descendants().reference).not()).empty())
dom-4: If a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated (: contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty())
obs-6: dataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present (: dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty())
obs-7: If code is the same as a component code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present (: value.empty() or code!=component.code)
Observation.id
Definition

The logical id of the resource, as used in the URL for the resource. Once assigned, this value never changes.

Control0..1
Typeid
Comments

The only time that a resource does not have an id is when it is being submitted to the server using a create operation.

Observation.meta
Definition

The metadata about the resource. This is content that is maintained by the infrastructure. Changes to the content may not always be associated with version changes to the resource.

Control0..1
TypeMeta
Observation.implicitRules
Definition

A reference to a set of rules that were followed when the resource was constructed, and which must be understood when processing the content.

Control0..1
Typeuri
Is Modifiertrue
Comments

Asserting this rule set restricts the content to be only understood by a limited set of trading partners. This inherently limits the usefulness of the data in the long term. However, the existing health eco-system is highly fractured, and not yet ready to define, collect, and exchange data in a generally computable sense. Wherever possible, implementers and/or specification writers should avoid using this element.

This element is labelled as a modifier because the implicit rules may provide additional knowledge about the resource that modifies it's meaning or interpretation.

Observation.language
Definition

The base language in which the resource is written.

Control0..1
BindingA human language.
The codes SHALL be taken from Common Languages; other codes may be used where these codes are not suitable
Typecode
Comments

Language is provided to support indexing and accessibility (typically, services such as text to speech use the language tag). The html language tag in the narrative applies to the narrative. The language tag on the resource may be used to specify the language of other presentations generated from the data in the resource Not all the content has to be in the base language. The Resource.language should not be assumed to apply to the narrative automatically. If a language is specified, it should it also be specified on the div element in the html (see rules in HTML5 for information about the relationship between xml:lang and the html lang attribute).

Observation.text
Definition

A human-readable narrative that contains a summary of the resource, and may be used to represent the content of the resource to a human. The narrative need not encode all the structured data, but is required to contain sufficient detail to make it "clinically safe" for a human to just read the narrative. Resource definitions may define what content should be represented in the narrative to ensure clinical safety.

Control0..1 This element is affected by the following invariants: dom-1
TypeNarrative
Alternate Namesnarrative, html, xhtml, display
Comments

Contained resources do not have narrative. Resources that are not contained SHOULD have a narrative. In some cases, a resource may only have text with little or no additional discrete data (as long as all minOccurs=1 elements are satisfied). This may be necessary for data from legacy systems where information is captured as a "text blob" or where text is additionally entered raw or narrated and encoded in formation is added later.

Observation.contained
Definition

These resources do not have an independent existence apart from the resource that contains them - they cannot be identified independently, and nor can they have their own independent transaction scope.

Control0..*
TypeResource
Alternate Namesinline resources, anonymous resources, contained resources
Comments

This should never be done when the content can be identified properly, as once identification is lost, it is extremely difficult (and context dependent) to restore it again.

Observation.extension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the resource. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.extension (http://standardhealthrecord.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/shr-base-Author-extension)
Definition

The person or organization who created the entry and is responsible for (and may certify) the content.

Control0..* This element is affected by the following invariants: ele-1
Type (Extension Type: Choice of: base64Binary, boolean, code, date, dateTime, decimal, id, instant, integer, markdown, oid, positiveInt, string, time, unsignedInt, uri, Address, Age, Annotation, Attachment, CodeableConcept, Coding, ContactPoint, Count, Distance, Duration, HumanName, Identifier, Money, Period, Quantity, Range, Ratio, Reference, SampledData, Signature, Timing, Meta)
InvariantsDefined on this element
choice-1: shr-base-Author-extension SHALL have either extension('string') or extension('patient') or extension('group') or extension('device') or extension('participant') or extension('relatedperson') or extension('organization') (: ( extension('string').url | extension('patient').url | extension('group').url | extension('device').url | extension('participant').url | extension('relatedperson').url | extension('organization').url ).distinct().count() == 1)
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: children().count() > id.count())
ext-1: Must have either extensions or value[x], not both (: extension.exists() != value.exists())
Observation.extension (http://standardhealthrecord.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/shr-base-Informant-extension)
Definition

The person or entity that provided the information in the entry, as distinct from who created the entry, e.g. the subject (patient), medical professional, family member, device or software program.

Control0..* This element is affected by the following invariants: ele-1
Type (Extension Type: Choice of: base64Binary, boolean, code, date, dateTime, decimal, id, instant, integer, markdown, oid, positiveInt, string, time, unsignedInt, uri, Address, Age, Annotation, Attachment, CodeableConcept, Coding, ContactPoint, Count, Distance, Duration, HumanName, Identifier, Money, Period, Quantity, Range, Ratio, Reference, SampledData, Signature, Timing, Meta)
InvariantsDefined on this element
choice-1: shr-base-Informant-extension SHALL have either extension('string') or extension('patient') or extension('group') or extension('device') or extension('participant') or extension('relatedperson') or extension('organization') (: ( extension('string').url | extension('patient').url | extension('group').url | extension('device').url | extension('participant').url | extension('relatedperson').url | extension('organization').url ).distinct().count() == 1)
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: children().count() > id.count())
ext-1: Must have either extensions or value[x], not both (: extension.exists() != value.exists())
Observation.extension (http://standardhealthrecord.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/shr-finding-FocalSubject-extension)
Definition

For use when FHIR's subject does not allow the desired type of Subject in the Finding.Subject field.

Control0..* This element is affected by the following invariants: ele-1
Type (Extension Type: CodeableConcept)
InvariantsDefined on this element
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: children().count() > id.count())
ext-1: Must have either extensions or value[x], not both (: extension.exists() != value.exists())
Observation.extension (http://standardhealthrecord.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/shr-finding-FocalSubjectReference-extension)
Definition

For use when FHIR's subject does not allow the desired type of Subject in the Finding.Subject field.

Control0..* This element is affected by the following invariants: ele-1
Type (Extension Type: Choice of: base64Binary, boolean, code, date, dateTime, decimal, id, instant, integer, markdown, oid, positiveInt, string, time, unsignedInt, uri, Address, Age, Annotation, Attachment, CodeableConcept, Coding, ContactPoint, Count, Distance, Duration, HumanName, Identifier, Money, Period, Quantity, Range, Ratio, Reference, SampledData, Signature, Timing, Meta)
InvariantsDefined on this element
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: children().count() > id.count())
ext-1: Must have either extensions or value[x], not both (: extension.exists() != value.exists())
Observation.extension (http://standardhealthrecord.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/shr-finding-Evidence-extension)
Definition

A symptom, observation, or other item, for example, a radiology report, that serves as evidence for the current assessment.

Control0..* This element is affected by the following invariants: ele-1
Type (Extension Type: Choice of: base64Binary, boolean, code, date, dateTime, decimal, id, instant, integer, markdown, oid, positiveInt, string, time, unsignedInt, uri, Address, Age, Annotation, Attachment, CodeableConcept, Coding, ContactPoint, Count, Distance, Duration, HumanName, Identifier, Money, Period, Quantity, Range, Ratio, Reference, SampledData, Signature, Timing, Meta)
InvariantsDefined on this element
choice-1: shr-finding-Evidence-extension SHALL have either extension('codeableconcept') or extension('content') (: ( extension('codeableconcept').url | extension('content').url ).distinct().count() == 1)
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: children().count() > id.count())
ext-1: Must have either extensions or value[x], not both (: extension.exists() != value.exists())
Observation.extension (http://standardhealthrecord.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/shr-finding-ChangeFlag-extension)
Definition

Indicator of significant change (delta) from the last or previous measurement.

Control0..* This element is affected by the following invariants: ele-1
Type (Extension Type: CodeableConcept)
InvariantsDefined on this element
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: children().count() > id.count())
ext-1: Must have either extensions or value[x], not both (: extension.exists() != value.exists())
Observation.extension (http://standardhealthrecord.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/shr-finding-ObservationQualifier-extension)
Definition

A description of the conditions or context of an observation, for example, under sedation, fasting or post-exercise. Body position and body site are also qualifiers, but handled separately. A qualifier cannot modify the measurement type; for example, a fasting blood sugar is still a blood sugar.

Control0..* This element is affected by the following invariants: ele-1
Type (Extension Type: CodeableConcept)
InvariantsDefined on this element
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: children().count() > id.count())
ext-1: Must have either extensions or value[x], not both (: extension.exists() != value.exists())
Observation.modifierExtension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the resource, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Is Modifiertrue
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.identifier
Definition

A unique identifier assigned to this observation.

NoteThis is a business identifer, not a resource identifier (see discussion)
Control0..*
TypeIdentifier
Requirements

Allows observations to be distinguished and referenced.

Observation.basedOn
Definition

A plan, proposal or order that is fulfilled in whole or in part by this event.

Control0..*
TypeChoice of: Reference(CarePlan), Reference(DeviceRequest), Reference(ImmunizationRecommendation), Reference(MedicationRequest), Reference(NutritionOrder), Reference(ProcedureRequest), Reference(ReferralRequest)
Requirements

Allows tracing of authorization for the event and tracking whether proposals/recommendations were acted upon.

Alternate NamesFulfills
Observation.status
Definition

The status of the result value.

Control1..1
BindingCodes providing the status of an observation.
The codes SHALL be taken from ObservationStatus
Typecode
Is Modifiertrue
Requirements

Need to track the status of individual results. Some results are finalized before the whole report is finalized.

Comments

This element is labeled as a modifier because the status contains codes that mark the resource as not currently valid.

Observation.category
Definition

A code that classifies the general type of observation being made.

Control0..*
BindingCodes for high level observation categories.
The codes SHALL be taken from Observation Category Codes; other codes may be used where these codes are not suitable
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

Used for filtering what observations are retrieved and displayed.

Comments

In addition to the required category valueset, this element allows various categorization schemes based on the owner’s definition of the category and effectively multiple categories can be used at once. The level of granularity is defined by the category concepts in the value set.

Observation.code
Definition

Describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation "name".

Control1..1
BindingCodes identifying names of simple observations.
For example codes, see LOINC Codes
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

Knowing what kind of observation is being made is essential to understanding the observation.

Alternate NamesName
Observation.code.id
Definition

unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Control0..1
Typestring
Observation.code.extension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.code.coding
Definition

A reference to a code defined by a terminology system.

Control0..*
TypeCoding
Requirements

Allows for translations and alternate encodings within a code system. Also supports communication of the same instance to systems requiring different encodings.

Comments

Codes may be defined very casually in enumerations, or code lists, up to very formal definitions such as SNOMED CT - see the HL7 v3 Core Principles for more information. Ordering of codings is undefined and SHALL NOT be used to infer meaning. Generally, at most only one of the coding values will be labeled as UserSelected = true.

Observation.code.coding(Fixed_C027754)
Definition

A reference to a code defined by a terminology system.

Control0..*
TypeCoding
Observation.code.coding.id
Definition

unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Control0..1
Typestring
Observation.code.coding.extension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.code.coding.system
Definition

The identification of the code system that defines the meaning of the symbol in the code.

Control0..1
Typeuri
Requirements

Need to be unambiguous about the source of the definition of the symbol.

Comments

The URI may be an OID (urn:oid:...) or a UUID (urn:uuid:...). OIDs and UUIDs SHALL be references to the HL7 OID registry. Otherwise, the URI should come from HL7's list of FHIR defined special URIs or it should de-reference to some definition that establish the system clearly and unambiguously.

Fixed Valuehttp://ncimeta.nci.nih.gov
Observation.code.coding.version
Definition

The version of the code system which was used when choosing this code. Note that a well-maintained code system does not need the version reported, because the meaning of codes is consistent across versions. However this cannot consistently be assured. and when the meaning is not guaranteed to be consistent, the version SHOULD be exchanged.

NoteThis is a business versionId, not a resource version id (see discussion)
Control0..1
Typestring
Comments

Where the terminology does not clearly define what string should be used to identify code system versions, the recommendation is to use the date (expressed in FHIR date format) on which that version was officially published as the version date.

Observation.code.coding.code
Definition

A symbol in syntax defined by the system. The symbol may be a predefined code or an expression in a syntax defined by the coding system (e.g. post-coordination).

Control0..1
Typecode
Requirements

Need to refer to a particular code in the system.

Fixed ValueC027754
Observation.code.coding.display
Definition

A representation of the meaning of the code in the system, following the rules of the system.

Control0..1
Typestring
Requirements

Need to be able to carry a human-readable meaning of the code for readers that do not know the system.

Observation.code.coding.userSelected
Definition

Indicates that this coding was chosen by a user directly - i.e. off a pick list of available items (codes or displays).

Control0..1
Typeboolean
Requirements

This has been identified as a clinical safety criterium - that this exact system/code pair was chosen explicitly, rather than inferred by the system based on some rules or language processing.

Comments

Amongst a set of alternatives, a directly chosen code is the most appropriate starting point for new translations. There is some ambiguity about what exactly 'directly chosen' implies, and trading partner agreement may be needed to clarify the use of this element and its consequences more completely.

Observation.code.text
Definition

A human language representation of the concept as seen/selected/uttered by the user who entered the data and/or which represents the intended meaning of the user.

Control0..1
Typestring
Requirements

The codes from the terminologies do not always capture the correct meaning with all the nuances of the human using them, or sometimes there is no appropriate code at all. In these cases, the text is used to capture the full meaning of the source.

Comments

Very often the text is the same as a displayName of one of the codings.

Observation.subject
Definition

The patient, or group of patients, location, or device whose characteristics (direct or indirect) are described by the observation and into whose record the observation is placed. Comments: Indirect characteristics may be those of a specimen, fetus, donor, other observer (for example a relative or EMT), or any observation made about the subject.

Control0..1
TypeChoice of: Reference(SHR Patient Profile), Reference(SHR Group Profile), Reference(SHR Device Profile), Reference(SHR Geoposition Profile)
Requirements

Observations have no value if you don't know who or what they're about.

Comments

One would expect this element to be a cardinality of 1..1. The only circumstance in which the subject can be missing is when the observation is made by a device that does not know the patient. In this case, the observation SHALL be matched to a patient through some context/channel matching technique, and at this point, the observation should be updated.

If the target of the observation is different than the subject, the general extension observation-focal-subject. may be used. However, the distinction between the patient's own value for an observation versus that of the fetus, or the donor or blood product unit, etc., are often specified in the observation code.

Observation.context
Definition

The healthcare event (e.g. a patient and healthcare provider interaction) during which this observation is made.

Control0..1
TypeReference(SHR EncounterPerformed Profile)
Requirements

For some observations it may be important to know the link between an observation and a particular encounter.

Alternate NamesEncounter
Comments

This will typically be the encounter the event occurred within, but some events may be initiated prior to or after the official completion of an encounter or episode but still be tied to the context of the encounter or episode (e.g. pre-admission lab tests).

Observation.effective[x]
Definition

The time or time-period the observed value is asserted as being true. For biological subjects - e.g. human patients - this is usually called the "physiologically relevant time". This is usually either the time of the procedure or of specimen collection, but very often the source of the date/time is not known, only the date/time itself.

Control0..1
TypeChoice of: dateTime, Period
[x] NoteSee Choice of Data Types for further information about how to use [x]
Requirements

Knowing when an observation was deemed true is important to its relevance as well as determining trends.

Alternate NamesOccurrence
Comments

At least a date should be present unless this observation is a historical report.

Observation.issued
Definition

The date and time this observation was made available to providers, typically after the results have been reviewed and verified.

Control1..1
Typeinstant
Comments

Updated when the result is updated.

Observation.performer
Definition

Who was responsible for asserting the observed value as "true".

Control0..*
TypeChoice of: Reference(Practitioner), Reference(Organization), Reference(Patient), Reference(RelatedPerson)
Requirements

May give a degree of confidence in the observation and also indicates where follow-up questions should be directed.

Observation.valueCodeableConcept
Definition

The information determined as a result of making the observation, if the information has a simple value.

Control1..1
Bindingnull
The codes SHALL be taken from SHR WoundTypeVS ValueSet
TypeCodeableConcept
Observation.dataAbsentReason
Definition

Provides a reason why the expected value in the element Observation.value[x] is missing.

Control0..1 This element is affected by the following invariants: obs-6
Bindingnull
The codes SHALL be taken from SHR ValueAbsentReasonVS ValueSet
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

For many results it is necessary to handle exceptional values in measurements.

Comments

Null or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations. One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value. For example, measurement values for a serology test could be "detected", "not detected", "inconclusive", or "specimen unsatisfactory". The alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values. For example, the dataAbsentReason code "error" could be used when the measurement was not completed. Note that an observation may only be reported if there are values to report. For example differential cell counts values may be reported only when > 0. Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for null or exceptional values.

Observation.interpretation
Definition

The assessment made based on the result of the observation. Intended as a simple compact code often placed adjacent to the result value in reports and flow sheets to signal the meaning/normalcy status of the result. Otherwise known as abnormal flag.

Control0..1
BindingCodes identifying interpretations of observations.
The codes SHALL be taken from Observation Interpretation Codes
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

For some results, particularly numeric results, an interpretation is necessary to fully understand the significance of a result.

Alternate NamesAbnormal Flag
Observation.comment
Definition

May include statements about significant, unexpected or unreliable values, or information about the source of the value where this may be relevant to the interpretation of the result.

Control0..1
Typestring
Requirements

Need to be able to provide free text additional information.

Observation.bodySite
Definition

Indicates the site on the subject's body where the observation was made (i.e. the target site).

Control0..1
Bindingnull
The codes SHALL be taken from SHR BodySiteVS ValueSet
TypeCodeableConcept
Comments

Only used if not implicit in code found in Observation.code. In many systems, this may be represented as a related observation instead of an inline component. If the use case requires BodySite to be handled as a separate resource (e.g. to identify and track separately) then use the standard extension body-site-instance.

Observation.method
Definition

Indicates the mechanism used to perform the observation.

Control0..1
BindingMethods for simple observations.
For example codes, see Observation Methods
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

In some cases, method can impact results and is thus used for determining whether results can be compared or determining significance of results.

Comments

Only used if not implicit in code for Observation.code.

Observation.specimen
Definition

The specimen that was used when this observation was made.

Control0..1
TypeReference(SHR Specimen Profile)
Comments

Should only be used if not implicit in code found in Observation.code. Observations are not made on specimens themselves; they are made on a subject, but in many cases by the means of a specimen. Note that although specimens are often involved, they are not always tracked and reported explicitly. Also note that observation resources may be used in contexts that track the specimen explicitly (e.g. Diagnostic Report).

Observation.device
Definition

The device used to generate the observation data.

Control0..1
TypeReference(SHR Device Profile)
Comments

An extension should be used if further typing of the device is needed. Devices used to support obtaining an observation can be represented using either an extension or through the Observation.related element.

Observation.referenceRange
Definition

Guidance on how to interpret the value by comparison to a normal or recommended range.

Control0..*
TypeBackboneElement
Requirements

Knowing what values are considered "normal" can help evaluate the significance of a particular result. Need to be able to provide multiple reference ranges for different contexts.

Comments

Most observations only have one generic reference range. Systems MAY choose to restrict to only supplying the relevant reference range based on knowledge about the patient (e.g., specific to the patient's age, gender, weight and other factors), but this may not be possible or appropriate. Whenever more than one reference range is supplied, the differences between them SHOULD be provided in the reference range and/or age properties.

InvariantsDefined on this element
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: hasValue() | (children().count() > id.count()))
obs-3: Must have at least a low or a high or text (: low.exists() or high.exists() or text.exists())
Observation.referenceRange.id
Definition

unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Control0..1
Typestring
Observation.referenceRange.extension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.referenceRange.modifierExtension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Is Modifiertrue
Alternate Namesextensions, user content, modifiers
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.referenceRange.low
Definition

The value of the low bound of the reference range. The low bound of the reference range endpoint is inclusive of the value (e.g. reference range is >=5 - <=9). If the low bound is omitted, it is assumed to be meaningless (e.g. reference range is <=2.3).

Control0..1 This element is affected by the following invariants: obs-3
TypeQuantity(SHR SimpleQuantity Profile)
Observation.referenceRange.high
Definition

The value of the high bound of the reference range. The high bound of the reference range endpoint is inclusive of the value (e.g. reference range is >=5 - <=9). If the high bound is omitted, it is assumed to be meaningless (e.g. reference range is >= 2.3).

Control0..1 This element is affected by the following invariants: obs-3
TypeQuantity(SHR SimpleQuantity Profile)
Observation.referenceRange.type
Definition

Codes to indicate the what part of the targeted reference population it applies to. For example, the normal or therapeutic range.

Control0..1
BindingCode for the meaning of a reference range.
The codes SHALL be taken from Observation Reference Range Meaning Codes; other codes may be used where these codes are not suitable
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

Need to be able to say what kind of reference range this is - normal, recommended, therapeutic, etc, - for proper interpretation.

Comments

This SHOULD be populated if there is more than one range. If this element is not present then the normal range is assumed.

Observation.referenceRange.appliesTo
Definition

Codes to indicate the target population this reference range applies to. For example, a reference range may be based on the normal population or a particular sex or race.

Control0..*
BindingCodes identifying the population the reference range applies to.
The codes SHALL be taken from Observation Reference Range Applies To Codes; other codes may be used where these codes are not suitable
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

Need to be able to identify the target population for proper interpretation.

Comments

This SHOULD be populated if there is more than one range. If this element is not present then the normal population is assumed.

Observation.referenceRange.age
Definition

The age at which this reference range is applicable. This is a neonatal age (e.g. number of weeks at term) if the meaning says so.

Control0..1
TypeRange(SHR Range Profile)
Requirements

Some analytes vary greatly over age.

Observation.referenceRange.text
Definition

Text based reference range in an observation which may be used when a quantitative range is not appropriate for an observation. An example would be a reference value of "Negative" or a list or table of 'normals'.

Control0..1
Typestring
Observation.related
Definition

A reference to another resource (usually another Observation) whose relationship is defined by the relationship type code.

Control0..*
TypeBackboneElement
Requirements

Normally, an observation will have either a value or a set of related observations. A few observations (e.g. Apgar score) may have both a value and a set of related observations or sometimes a QuestionnaireResponse from which the measure is derived.

Comments

For a discussion on the ways Observations can assembled in groups together see Notes below.

InvariantsDefined on this element
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: hasValue() | (children().count() > id.count()))
Observation.related.id
Definition

unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Control0..1
Typestring
Observation.related.extension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.related.modifierExtension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Is Modifiertrue
Alternate Namesextensions, user content, modifiers
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.related.type
Definition

A code specifying the kind of relationship that exists with the target resource.

Control0..1
BindingCodes specifying how two observations are related.
The codes SHALL be taken from ObservationRelationshipType
Typecode
Requirements

A relationship type SHOULD be provided.

Comments

The "derived-from" type is the only logical choice when referencing the QuestionnaireAnswer resource.

Fixed Valuehas-member
Observation.related.target
Definition

A reference to the observation or QuestionnaireResponse resource that is related to this observation.

Control1..1
TypeReference(SHR Observation Profile)
Observation.component
Definition

Some observations have multiple component observations. These component observations are expressed as separate code value pairs that share the same attributes. Examples include systolic and diastolic component observations for blood pressure measurement and multiple component observations for genetics observations.

Control0..*
TypeBackboneElement
Requirements

Component observations share the same attributes in the Observation resource as the primary observation and are always treated a part of a single observation (they are not separable). However, the reference range for the primary observation value is not inherited by the component values and is required when appropriate for each component observation.

Comments

For a discussion on the ways Observations can be assembled in groups together see Notes below.

InvariantsDefined on this element
ele-1: All FHIR elements must have a @value or children (: hasValue() | (children().count() > id.count()))
Observation.component.id
Definition

unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Control0..1
Typestring
Observation.component.extension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.component.modifierExtension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Is Modifiertrue
Alternate Namesextensions, user content, modifiers
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.component.code
Definition

Describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation "code".

Control1..1
BindingCodes identifying names of simple observations.
For example codes, see LOINC Codes
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

Knowing what kind of observation is being made is essential to understanding the observation.

Observation.component.value[x]
Definition

The information determined as a result of making the observation, if the information has a simple value.

Control0..1
TypeChoice of: Quantity(SHR Quantity Profile), Quantity(SHR IntegerQuantity Profile), CodeableConcept, string, Range(SHR Range Profile), Ratio(SHR Ratio Profile), Attachment, time, dateTime, Period
[x] NoteSee Choice of Data Types for further information about how to use [x]
Requirements

An observation exists to have a value, though it may not if it is in error, or if it represents a group of observations.

Comments

Normally, an observation will have either a single value or a set of related observations. A few observations (e.g. Apgar score) may have both a value and related observations (for an Apgar score, the observations from which the measure is derived). If a value is present, the datatype for this element should be determined by Observation.code. A CodeableConcept with just a text would be used instead of a string if the field was usually coded, or if the type associated with the Observation.code defines a coded value. For boolean values use valueCodeableConcept and select codes from <http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/v2-0136> (these "yes/no" concepts can be mapped to the display name "true/false" or other mutually exclusive terms that may be needed"). The element, Observation.value[x], has a variable name depending on the type as follows: valueQuantity, valueCodeableConcept, valueRatio, valueChoice, valuePeriod, valueSampleData, or valueString (the name format is "'value' + the type name" with a capital on the first letter of the type).

Observation.component.dataAbsentReason
Definition

Provides a reason why the expected value in the element Observation.value[x] is missing.

Control0..1 This element is affected by the following invariants: obs-6
Bindingnull
The codes SHALL be taken from SHR ValueAbsentReasonVS ValueSet
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

For many results it is necessary to handle exceptional values in measurements.

Comments

"Null" or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations. One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value. For example, measurement values for a serology test could be "detected", "not detected", "inconclusive", or "test not done". The alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values. For example, the dataAbsentReason code "error" could be used when the measurement was not completed. Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for exceptional values.

Observation.component.interpretation
Definition

The assessment made based on the result of the observation. Intended as a simple compact code often placed adjacent to the result value in reports and flow sheets to signal the meaning/normalcy status of the result. Otherwise known as abnormal flag.

Control0..1
BindingCodes identifying interpretations of observations.
The codes SHALL be taken from Observation Interpretation Codes
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

For some results, particularly numeric results, an interpretation is necessary to fully understand the significance of a result.

Alternate NamesAbnormal Flag
Comments

The component interpretation applies only to the individual component value. For an overall interpretation all components together use thes Observation.interpretation element.

Observation.component.referenceRange
Definition

Guidance on how to interpret the value by comparison to a normal or recommended range.

Control0..*
TypeBackboneElement
Requirements

Knowing what values are considered "normal" can help evaluate the significance of a particular result. Need to be able to provide multiple reference ranges for different contexts.

Comments

Most observations only have one generic reference range. Systems MAY choose to restrict to only supplying the relevant reference range based on knowledge about the patient (e.g., specific to the patient's age, gender, weight and other factors), but this may not be possible or appropriate. Whenever more than one reference range is supplied, the differences between them SHOULD be provided in the reference range and/or age properties.

Observation.component.referenceRange.id
Definition

unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Control0..1
Typestring
Observation.component.referenceRange.extension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Alternate Namesextensions, user content
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.component.referenceRange.modifierExtension
Definition

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element, and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. In order to make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.

Control0..*
TypeExtension
Is Modifiertrue
Alternate Namesextensions, user content, modifiers
Comments

There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.component.referenceRange.low
Definition

The value of the low bound of the reference range. The low bound of the reference range endpoint is inclusive of the value (e.g. reference range is >=5 - <=9). If the low bound is omitted, it is assumed to be meaningless (e.g. reference range is <=2.3).

Control0..1 This element is affected by the following invariants: obs-3
TypeQuantity(SimpleQuantity)
Observation.component.referenceRange.high
Definition

The value of the high bound of the reference range. The high bound of the reference range endpoint is inclusive of the value (e.g. reference range is >=5 - <=9). If the high bound is omitted, it is assumed to be meaningless (e.g. reference range is >= 2.3).

Control0..1 This element is affected by the following invariants: obs-3
TypeQuantity(SimpleQuantity)
Observation.component.referenceRange.type
Definition

Codes to indicate the what part of the targeted reference population it applies to. For example, the normal or therapeutic range.

Control0..1
BindingCode for the meaning of a reference range.
The codes SHALL be taken from Observation Reference Range Meaning Codes; other codes may be used where these codes are not suitable
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

Need to be able to say what kind of reference range this is - normal, recommended, therapeutic, etc, - for proper interpretation.

Comments

This SHOULD be populated if there is more than one range. If this element is not present then the normal range is assumed.

Observation.component.referenceRange.appliesTo
Definition

Codes to indicate the target population this reference range applies to. For example, a reference range may be based on the normal population or a particular sex or race.

Control0..*
BindingCodes identifying the population the reference range applies to.
For example codes, see Observation Reference Range Applies To Codes
TypeCodeableConcept
Requirements

Need to be able to identify the target population for proper interpretation.

Comments

This SHOULD be populated if there is more than one range. If this element is not present then the normal population is assumed.

Observation.component.referenceRange.age
Definition

The age at which this reference range is applicable. This is a neonatal age (e.g. number of weeks at term) if the meaning says so.

Control0..1
TypeRange
Requirements

Some analytes vary greatly over age.

Observation.component.referenceRange.text
Definition

Text based reference range in an observation which may be used when a quantitative range is not appropriate for an observation. An example would be a reference value of "Negative" or a list or table of 'normals'.

Control0..1
Typestring